Researchers have studied personality traits to identify those traits that influence the gambling activities chosen by a gambler.
A comparative study by Hwang (2007) confirmed that poker-machine players and traditional push/pull-machine players possessed different personality traits.
By applying Cattell’s 16 personality factors, Hwang found that video-poker players presented a more dominant personality trait than push/pull slot machine players, who conversely showed a more submissive personality.
Fang and Mowen (2009) found that compared to card game players, sports bettors and promotional games bettors (e.g., sweepstakes players, slot machine players were low in competitiveness and arousal needs and high in impulsiveness and materialism.
Demographic differences have been noted in preferences for specific types of gaming activities. Conventional wisdom says that slot machine gamblers are poverty-stricken, geriatric widows spending their retirement checks on the slot machine, which study after study disproves.
National surveys conducted by Harrah’s (2006) show that indeed there are more women than men in the United States who prefer slot machines, but their median age is around 46 years with a median annual household income around US$55,000.
Casino Atmospherics Researchers have also studied casino atmospherics, or the physical environment’s effect on the gambling behavior of slot machine players while inside the casino.
Scholars using this approach have examined the effects sound and music (Dixon, et al., 2010; Noseworthy and sizzling hot deluxe slot, 2009), floor layout and theme (Lucas, 2003; Mayer and Johnson, 2003), and other casino atmospherics elements (e.g., noise level, lighting, odor, etc.) on the length of time a gambler spends on the slot machine floor.
Lucas (2003) and Suh and Erdem (2009) suggested that increased service quality could enhance the overall slot gaming experience, which in turn should generate positive word-of-mouth and intent to revisit the casino.
Mayer and Johnson (2003) linked the atmospherics dimensions with customer satisfaction and found that theme, employee uniforms, and noise level in a casino had significant effects on a slot player’s satisfaction with the gaming experience
Americans like slot machines. In the 1970s, the slot machine’s share of the gaming floor at American casinos was 40%; by 2010, it stood at about 70% (Stewart, 2010).
A 2006 national survey shows that 71% of casino gamblers prefer to play slot machines and/or video poker over other games (Harrah’s Entertainment, Inc., 2006). There are more than 854,000 slot machines available in 39 states, according to book of ra slots com (American Gaming Association, 2011), of which 432,394 are located at commercial casinos, 337,628 at tribal casinos, and 84,680 at non-casino venues.
Slot machines and other machine games are “cash cows” for casinos -- they currently account for nearly 70% of gross gaming win (i.e., gross revenue) in casinos that offer both machine gaming and table games, and over 90% of gross gaming win in casinos without table games (American Gaming Association, 2011; Stewart, 2010).
In an increasingly interactive entertainment environment, it is imperative that casino managers understand who their slot machine customers are and how their preferences are changing. Gaming machine companies and casinos face challenges when developing new games, particularly where skill is a perceived component. A traditional slot machine does not require any real skill other than hitting a button (or pulling a handle, which is still available on a few machines).
The player’s success rate and the payout schedule are randomly generated, regardless of a player’s superstitions or “system” for playing the game. However, today’s world of interactive entertainment systems, such as Nintendo’s Wii or Sony’s Playstation, is creating a class of potential customers who would like to play games that are either more interactive or require skill for successful outcomes.
The traditional obstacle to skill games for gaming machines is regulation. However, the gaming regulatory environment is changing and, as barriers to creating skill games fall, the gaming machine manufacturers and casino gaming providers need to provide new options for this burgeoning segment of customer.
Before fully investing in a new product, the developer needs to understand who the customer truly is, why he or she plays, and what outcomes are expected.